With the Age of Enlightenment in Europe, beginning concerning the mid-17th century, the development of rationalism, materialism as well as atheism, the idea of unnatural publication itself came to be watched in a sceptical light source.


Thomas Paine in The Age of Explanation (1794-- 1809) develops the theology of deism, denying the possibility of phenomena and suggesting that any kind of publication may merely be considered appropriate for the first recipient.